On 17 September 1748, Empress Maria Theresa gave birth to a daughter. The child showed alarming signs and it was decided she must be baptized hurriedly; she was named Maria Carolina, in memory of her older deceased sister.
The little Archduchess died the same day. The Empress was relieved to learn that her child had time to be baptized before dying.
Maria Carolina was buried in the Imperial Crypt, Vienna.